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SECTORAL DEVELOPMENT
Aquaculture
COCOA | OIL PALM | RUBBER | PADDY | FRUIT | LIVE STOCK | ESTIMATED HECTAREAGE OF MAIN CROPS, SABAH | ESTIMATED HECTAREAGE OF MAIN CROPS BY DIVISION & DISTRICT, SABAH, 1996 | COOPERATIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT SOCIETIES BY DISTRICT, SABAH-1997 | COOPERATIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT SOCIETIES BY MAIN CROP, SABAH-1997

Agriculture is a major sector of Sabah's economy after timber and forest industry. In 1995, palm oil contributed 20% to the total export of Sabah, which worked out to be approximately RM 2,125.1 million.

In 1997, 43,730 hectares of land was planted with cocoa.

In 1997, rubber plantations accounted for 2,615 hectares. Rice is the staple diet of Malaysians. In 1997, a total of 42,623 hectares was under paddy which produced 69,732 tonnes of rice for local consumption. The yield of paddy was around 2,597 kg/hectare.

Fruit and livestock farming catering to the local market is also a significant component of Sabah's agriculture.

COCOA
COCOA ESTATES: NUMBER, PLANTED AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD, SABAH
  1993 1994 1995 1996(a) 1997
Number of Estates (a) 465 431 332 330 277
Planted Area (Hectare)
Total 115,908 106,618 81,039 64,559 43,730
Mature 113,397 104,119 80,165 63,068 43,359
Immature 2,511 2,499 874 1,491 371
Hectareage in Production (Hectare) 104,783 95,704 73,260 59,272 41,964
Production of Dry Cocoa Beans (Tonne) 89,688 70,878 61,767 48,355 32,900
Yield of Per Hectare (Tonne) 0.86 0.74 0.84 0.82 0.78
(a) Excludes abandoned estates

Cocoa was reported to be growing in Peninsular Malaysia as early as 1778. However, it was only after the Second World War that serious efforts were made to cultivate cocoa on a large scale.

The first commercial planting began in the 1950's in Jerangau, Peninsular Malaysia and in 1954 in Sabah. With constant research at the Tuaran Agriculture Research Station and at Quoin Hill, Tawau and the introduction of new hybrids, cocoa cultivation grew at a rapid rate in Sabah. The high prices of cocoa beans in the late 70's and early 80's, as well as the availability of land made Sabah the leader in cocoa production in Malaysia.

In 1989, the Malaysian Cocoa Board was established with the overall responsibility for cocoa development, research and the coordination of all related activities. Today, cocoa is Malaysia's third largest agricultural export and Malaysia is the fourth largest producer in the world.


Research Centres
1. Makmal Kimia dan Teknologi Lot 5 & 6, Blok B Sri Kemajuan Industrial Estate Batu 6 1/2, Jalan Tuaran 88400 Inanam
Tel : 088-424780/424784
Fax : 088-424781
2. Unit Penyelidikan Biologi Tuaran d/a Pusat Penyelidikan Pertanian 89207 Tuaran
Tel : 088-787595
Fax : 088-788548
3. Unit Penyelidikan Biologi- Quoin Hill d/a Stesen penyelidikan Pertanian Quoin Hill Quoin Hill Peti Surat 324, 91007 Tawau
Tel : 089-761011/12/14
Fax : 089-761914
4. Makmal Kimia Dan Teknologi Unit Penyelidikan Tenom d/a. Pusat Penyelidikan Pertanian Lagud Sebrang, Peti Surat 197, 89908 Tenom
Tel : 087- 787564
Fax : 087-737563
Source: http://www.koko.gov.my

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OIL PALM
OIL PALM ESTATES AND LAND SCHEMES-NUMBER, PLANTED AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD,SABAH
Year Number Total Planted Area Mature Immature Area in Production Production afresh Fruit Bunches(a) Yield per hectare
    Hectare       Tonne  
Estate
1993 321 226,629 161,086 65.543 161,086 2,872,898 17.83
1994 370 270,334 197,492 72.842 197,492 2,939,913 14.89
1995 450 323,487 241,268 82.219 241,268 4,636,975 19.22
1996 530 425,179 318,289 106,890 318,289 6,801,836 21.37
1997 674 511,562 381,531 130,031 381,531 7,924,399 20.77
Land Scheme (b)
1993 92 151,611 119,960 31,651 119,960 2,251,207 18.77
1994 93 170,244 157,786 12,458 157,786 2,578,594 16.34
1995 97 176,612 159,191 17,421 176,612 2,591,520 14.67
1996 96 177,080 169,578 7,502 169,578 2,960,383 17.46
1997 75 177,996 167,211 10,785 167,211 3,099,828 18.54
(a) Private estate only. (b) Includes FELDA.
Source: Palm Oil Registration and Licensing Authority Malaysia (PORLA)

EXPORTS OF PALM OIL @BY MAJOR COUNTRIES, SABAH
Quantity (Tonnes) Value (RM'000)
Country of Jan-Jun Jan-Jun
Destination 1996 1997 1997 1998(p) 1996 1997 1997 1998(p)
Total 1,707,533 1,962,059 845,661 988,147 2,128,859 2,706,896 1,094,769 2,144,603
Bangladesh 25,297 72,312 4,617 53,603 30,211 111,764 5,995 128,989
China, People's Rep. Of 279,762 398,820 180,639 155,719 365,378 577,030 248,637 365,325
Egypt 60,844 37,706 24,356 12,142 70,787 50,486 32,999 23,757
India 84,286 102,835 39,606 106,238 114,328 151,064 55,767 229,020
Japan 93,499 79,827 37,234 42,300 118,616 113,655 49,021 90,356
Korea, Rep. Of 14,079 56,870 12,853 41,568 17,734 83,296 17,734 96,133
Malaysia, Peninsular 623,263 292,711 136,022 88,847 765,265 361,163 161,995 143,975
Netherlands 173,990 193,231 91,032 125,244 207,147 251,033 107,168 258,662
Pakistan 69,135 426,579 171,679 235,905 90,030 618,839 232,839 539,895
Saudi Arabia 42,392 20,686 18,647 - 56,993 28,556 25,592 -
Taiwan 38,487 38,218 14,646 12,203 47,157 51,727 18,808 26,692
United Kingdom 38,631 23,340 12,345 7,496 36,025 19,586 9,633 10,763
Other Countries 163,888 218,924 101,985 106,882 209,188 288,697 128,581 231,056
(P) Include crude and processed palm oil, crude and processed Palm Stearin and Palm Fatty Acid.

PROGRAMME TO DEVELOP THE PALM OIL INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER IN MOWTAS VALLEY, SANDAKAN
The creation of palm oil industrial cluster is aimed at accelerating the economic development of the Sandakan district. Fifty-three (53) percent out of the total 502,000 hectares of land planted with oil palm in Sabah is in the Sandakan district. With the creation of the Sandakan palm oil industrial cluster, it is expected that it will become one of the major production centres for palm oil in Malaysia as well as assisting the development of related supporting industries.

The palm oil industrial cluster is situated in a special industrial zone in Mowtas Valley, Sandakan, with an area of approximately 400 acres. The creation of this industrial cluster has received good response from the private sector. Apart from IOI Edible Oils Sdn. Bhd., which has started the refinery project, a four-member consortium has proposed to team up to invest in palm-based downstream activities which will include a palm oil refinery, a palm kernel crusher, oleochemical plants, oil packaging and other related manufacturing facilities. The development program for the palm oil industrial cluster in Mowtas Valley, Sandakan will be sufficient for the setting up of a 255,000 MT Bulking Installation, 9 Palm Oil Refineries, 10 Kernel Crushing Plants and 6 Oleochemical Plants.

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RUBBER
AREA OF RUBBER IN ESTATES AND SMALLHOLDINGS, SABAH
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Estates
Total Area (Hectare) 8,029 8,029 8,029 8,029 2,615 (b)
Total Area under HighYielding Material (Hectare) 6,943 6,943 6,943 6,943 2,615 (b)
Percentage of High Yielding Material 86 86 86 86 100
Smallholdings
Total Area (Hectare) (a) 80,870 80,301 81,069 82,120 83,136 (c)
Total Area under HighYielding Material (Hectare) 50,682 49,761 48,980 49,571 49,355 (c)
Percentage of High Yielding Material 63 62 60 60 59
(a) Includes Rubber Settlement Schemes.
(b) Hectareage of rubber estates have been revised as from year 1997 based on active estates only.
(c) Estimated Hectareage.
Source: Rubber Fund Board, Sabah

RUBBER ESTATES: NUMBER, PLANTED AREA, AVERAGE HECTAREAGE TAPPED, PRODUCTION AND YIELD, SABAH
1989 1990 1991 1992 1995
Number of Estates (a) 35 32 29 29 27
Mature Area (Hectare)
Total 5,821 5,218 4,189 4,168 3,802
High Yielding Material 4,809 4,251 3,307 3,296 3,008
Unselected Seedlings 235 190 190 190 (c)
Mixed Stands 777 777 692 682 (c)
Low Yielding Material (c) (c) (c) (c) 794
Immature Area (Hectare)
Total 239 197 307 294 969
High Yielding Material 239 197 307 294 969
Low Yielding Material - - - - -
Total Planted Hectareage (Hectare) 6,060 5,415 4,496 4,462 4,771
Average Hectareage Tapped (Hectare) 4,879 4,442 3,668 3,546 2,645
Estate Production D.R.C. (Tonne) (b) 5,340 4,751 4,673 4,421 3,723
Yield Per Hectare D.R.C (Kilogram) (b) 1,094 1,070 1,274 1,247 1,408
Note: The Census was not conducted for reference years 1993, 1994 and 1996.
(a) Excludes abandoned estates.
(b) D.r.C. - dried Rubber Content.
(c) Not applicable.

Rubber has become very much a part of the life of the modern man. The world now rides on rubber, lands on rubber, walks on rubber, sleeps on rubber and sits on rubber. Currently, NR and rubber manufactured products account for about 4% of Malaysia's total export earnings. Its share to the value added had declined from 62.4% in 1960 to 1.9% in 1993. However, this does not mean that the commodity that was once the mainstay of the nation will have no role to play in future especially in achieving the Vision 2020. On the contrary, with the advancement in the industrial sector, a greater portion of NR will be channeled into the rubber-based industries to be manufactured into higher value-added products. Already in 1993, the rubber product industry contributed almost RM3 Billion to the country's export earnings.

Source: Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia

Head Office
Malaysian Rubber Research and Development Board,
Bangunan Getah Asli (Menara), 148 Jalan Ampang,
P.O. Box 10508, 50450 Kuala Lumpur.
Tel : 603-2614422
Fax : 603-2613139

London Office
Tun Abdul Razak Laboratory,
Brickendonbury, Hertford SG13 8NL,
England.

Research Laboratories
Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia,
PO Box 10150, Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysian Rubber Producers' Research Association,
Brickendonbury, Hertford SG13 8NL, England.


Source: mrrdb@pop.jaring.my

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PADDY
PLANTED AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF WET PADDY, HILL PADDY AND KENDINGA PADDY, SABAH
Season
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Kendinga Paddy Planted Area (Hectare) 740 487 787 794 687
Production (Tonne)Paddy 1,326 674 1,089 1,099 951
Rice 835 425 686 692 599
Average Yield of Paddy(kg./Hectare) 1,792 1,384 1,384 1,384 1,384
Note: Paddy Production = Planted Area x Average Yield/100
Rice Production is 63% of Paddy Production
Average Yield = Total Paddy Production x 1,000 kg./Hectare/Total Planted Area
Source: Department of Agriculture, Sabah

PLANTED AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF WET PADDY, HILL PADDY AND KENDINGA PADDY, SABAH
Season
1991-1992 1992-1993 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996
Total
Planted Area (Hectare) 57,881 64,236 60,567 52,488 52,604
Production (Tonne) Paddy 136,558 159,636 161,490 141,594 151,237
Rice 86,031 100,571 101,739 89,204 95,279
Average Yield of Paddy(kg./Hectare) 2,359 2,485 2,666 2,698 2,875
Wet Paddy (Main Season)          
Planted Area (Hectare) 34,476 32,882 36,191 33,163 33,029
Production (Tonne)
Paddy 96,740 100,126 107,885 99,323 103,909
Rice 60,946 63,079 67,968 62,573 65,463
Average Yield of Paddy(kg./Hectare) 2,806 3,045 2,981 2,995 3,146
Note: Paddy Production = Planted Area x Average Yield/100
Rice Production is 63% of Paddy Production
Average Yield = Total Paddy Production x 1,000 Kg./Hectare/Total Planted Area
Source: Department of Agriculture, Sabah

PLANTED AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF WET PADDY, HILL PADDY AND KENDINGA PADDY, SABAH
Season
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Wet Paddy (Off-Season)          
Planted Area (Hectare) 3,609 5,561 7,025 6,917 8,194
Production (Tonne)
Paddy 10,823 16,727 22,452 22,148 28,515
Rice 6,819 10,538 14,145 13,953 17,964
Average Yield of Paddy(Kg./Hectare) 2,999 3,008 3,196 3,202 3,480
Hill Paddy Planted Area (Hectare) 19,056 25,306 16,564 11,614 10,694
Production (Tonne)
Paddy 27,669 42,109 30,064 19,024 17,386
Rice 17,431 26,529 18,940 11,985 10,953
Average Yield of Paddy(Kg./Hectare) 1,452 1,664 1,815 1,638 1,640
Note: Paddy Production = Planted Area x Average Yield/100
Rice Production is 63% of Paddy Production
Average Yield = Total Paddy Production x 1,000 kg./Hectare/Total Planted Area
Source: Department of Agriculture, Sabah

Rice is the main diet for Malaysians. 1994 value showed that there were a total of 52,949 hectares of planted paddy field. It produced 90,133 tonnes of rice for local consumption. The yield of paddy was around 2.7 kg/ hectare.

LOCAL NAME : Padi
BOTANICAL NAME : Oryza sativa L.


NUTRIENT COMPOSITION
(For every 100g edible portion)
Content Unpolished Rice Polished Rice
Protein (g) 8.0 7.1
Carbohydrate(g) 76.0 79.0
Fat (g) 0.8 0.5
Fibre (g) 0.5 0.4
Calcium (mg) 53.0 11.0
Iron 4.4 1.4
Phosphorus (g) 195 118
Potassium (mg) 59 31
Vit. B1 (mg) 0.38 0.11
Vit. B2 (mg) 0.14 0.06
Niacin (mg) 5.5 3.3
Sources : Asean Food Habits Project (1988)

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FRUITS

A great variety of tropical fruits such as starfruit, durian, papaya, guava, rambutan, banana, mango, ciku, jackfruit, pineapple, watermelon, mangosteen, pomelo, lansium, loose peel citrus and passion fruit are found in Sabah.

Detailed information on the economic value, cultivation and other relevant information can be obtained from the Malaysia Ministry of Agriculture homepage:

http://agrolink.moa.my/comoditi/fruits.

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LIVE STOCK
RECORDED LIVE STOCK SLAUGHTER, SABAH
Livestock Slaughter Year Sabah
Buffaloes 1993 3,650
  1994 2,806
  1995 2,385
  1996 1,632
  1997 874
Cattle 1993 9,853
  1994 9,023
  1995 9,081
  1996 8,405
  1997 6,434
Swine 1993 115,428
  1994 110,870
  1995 107,221
  1996 109,657
  1997 112,509
Source: Department of Veterinary Services and Livestock Industries, Sabah

ESTIMATED LIVESTOCK POPULATION, SABAH
Year Cattle Buffaloes Swine Goats Sheep
  Number of Heads        
1993 31,585 47,521 109,199 27,796 1,065
1994 38,938 48,625 182,772 30,017 2,783
1995 42,588 50,838 104,172 35,460 1,682
1996 37,528 49,850 108,000 31,437 1,700
1997 39,000 48,000 110,000 31,000 1,800
Note: Excludes Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan.
Source: Department of Veterinary Services and Livestock Industries, Sabah

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ESTIMATED HECTAREAGE OF MAIN CROPS, SABAH
Hectare
Sabah 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Wet Paddy (a) 36,491 41,752 40,188 39,946 38,701
Dry Paddy (b) 25,793 17,351 12,408 11,381 11,284
Rubber 88,022 92,184 88,026 89,234 90,466
Cocoa 188,841 175,259 157,947 142,036 111,736
Coconut 55,337 55,770 55,914 56,113 50,590
Oil Palm 421,958 499,711 570,306 629,431 746,222
Note: Excludes Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan.
(a) Includes Off Season Paddy. (b) Includes Hill Paddy and Kendinga Paddy.
Source: Department of Agriculture, Sabah. Sabah Rubber Fund Board.

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ESTIMATED HECTAREAGE OF MAIN CROPS BY DIVISION & DISTRICT, SABAH, 1996
Division/District Wet Paddy (a) Dry Paddy (b) Rubber Cocoa Coconut Oil Palm
  Hectare          
Sabah 38,701 11,284 90,466 111,736 50,590 746,222
Tawau Division 80 330 9,921 75,478 17,611 339,141
Tawau 80 - 7,817 34,570 5,414 82,715
Semporna - 10 510 13,881 5,878 30,580
Lahad Datu - 310 1,594 8,603 5,255 176,879
Kunak - 10 - 18,424 1,064 48,967
Sandakan Division 714 3,820 6,871 23,052 4,429 390,502
Sandakan 8 - 1,878 5,407 2,972 80,879
Kinabatangan 57 2,197 987 10,410 521 212,214
Beluran 649 1,623 4,015 7,235 936 97,409
Kudat Division 8,798 2,098 8,772 1,944 23,301 5,789
Kudat 1,021 816 4,733 1,855 19,911 1,324
Pitas 1,721 721 - 43 1,874 1,709
Kota Marudu 6,056 561 4,039 46 1,516 2,756
West Coast Division 18,491 1,611 28,831 3,373 1,422 2,513
Kota Belud 8,800 610 5,272 1,602 651 26
Ranau 1,183 755 2,662 1,454 300 -
Tuaran 3,131 109 8,906 182 82 375
Kota Kinabalu 231 128 2,808 - 56 -
Penampang 1,553 9 1,634 - 24 -
Papar 3,593 - 7,549 135 309 2,113
Interior Division 10,618 3,425 36,071 7,889 3,827 8,277
Beaufort 1,284 - 6,059 289 733 7,474
Sipitang 898 204 4,742 - 20 20
Kuala Penyu 532 5 2,641 30 2,917 -
Tenom 1,167 1,304 10,439 5,303 86 23
Keningau 4,099 1,115 8,561 1,888 40 756
Tambunan 2,564 293 3,487 13 -
Nabawan 74 504 142 379 18 4
Note: Excludes Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan.
(a) Includes Off Season Paddy. (b) Includes Hill Paddy and Kendinga Paddy.
Source: Department of Agriculture, Sabah.
Sabah Rubber Fund Board.

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COOPERATIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT SOCIETIES BY DISTRICT, SABAH-1997
District Number of Cooperative Societies Number of Members Total Alienated Area Planted Hectareage Total Rubber Oil Palm Coconut Cocoa Undecided
Sabah 74 (a) 5,528 23,528 13,387 1,021 12,017 177 38 134
Sandakan 33 2,071 8,857 5,131 33 5,098 - - -
Beluran 11 845 3,345 1,800 - 1,800 - - -
Kudat 3 86 - - - - - - -
Kota Marudu 3 244 787 786 786 - - - -
Lahad Datu 11 688 3,289 920 202 492 177 - 49
Tawau 3 831 3,239 2,745 - 2,680 - - 65
Semporna 4 440 1,985 1,985 - 1,947 - 38 -
Beaufort 2 165 1,571 - - - - - -
Sipitang 2 98 455 20     - - 20
Penampang 1 - - - - - - - -
Kota Kinabalu 1 60 - - - - - - -
Note: Excludes Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan.
(a) Includes 14 Multipurpose Cooperative which also carried out land development activity.
Source: Cooperative Development Department, Sabah.

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COOPERATIVE LAND DEVELOPMENT SOCIETIES BY MAIN CROP, SABAH-1997
Main Crop Number Of Cooperative Societies Number Of Members Total Alienated Area Planted Area Hectare
Total 63 (a) 5,528 23,528 13,387
Rubber 5 431 1,033 1,021
Oil Palm 32 4,733 13,913 12,017
Coconut 1 75 486 177
Cocoa 1 13 38 38
Undecided 24 276 8,058 134
Note: Excludes Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan.
(a) Excludes 11 Cooperative Land Development Societies with 606 members who do not possess land.
Source: Cooperative Development Department, Sabah.

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All information are compiled by Jesselton Communications Sdn.Bhd. 2000.